Wednesday, 6 April 2011

Essay Research...

Nausicaa of the valley of the wind: "The film's huge success prompted Tokuma and Miyazaki to establish Studio Ghibli to make their next movie." (Cavallaro, 2006:40)

"the "one big event" in the director's own words, that sparked his imagination and fuelled his desire to create Nausicaä was the pollution with mercury of Minamata Bay, as a result of which the fish stocks - left untouched as they would evidently be inedible - adjusted to the uncongenial environment by learning how to absorb the poison and indefatigably continued to reproduce. The Minamata Bay fish are unquestionably the real-life correlatives for the immensely and ingeniously adaptable fictitious plants portrayed in Miyazaki's film." (Cavallaro, 2006:48)

Miyazaki - "The Nature of Nausicaä's world has absorbed the poison man created and is adapting to it and getting on with the business of living...The technology of the human world is clumsy by comparison, driven by expediency and availability rather than planning and innovation" (Cavallaro, 2006:48)

Cavallaro, Dani (2006) The animé art of Hayao Miyazaki. North Carolina: MacFarland & Company, Inc.

  "the spiritual is usually understood as immanent, as integrated into the natural world, rather than residing in a monotheistic being or transcendental force." (Loy, Goodhew, 2004:80)

"In buddhist terms, she too becomes a bodhisattva, selflessly committed to doing whatever she can to help all those tragically caught in a reinforcing cycle of hatred and revenge." (Loy, Goodhew, 2004:83)

"Both films are striking, from a Western perspective at least, in that the relationships between humans and gods, and between humans and nature, are really the same: the spiritual and the natural are nondual." (Loy, Goodhew, 2004:86)

"the plo[t] of Nausicaa [is[ built upon the violent interaction between both dualities: war between tribal groups, along with struggle between humans and a violated natural world. As the consequences of various ecological crises interact and intensify, we can also expect increased tension between the human societies most affected by those developments." (Loy, Goodhew, 2004:92)

Loy, David, Goodhew, Linda (2004) The dharma of dragons and daemons: Buddhist themes in modern fantasy. Canada: Wisdom Publications.

Nausicaä manga written 'over a period of thirteen years and completed three years before the release of Mononoke. '

"The narratives of Hayao Miyazaki are distinguished by their sense of moral nuance and by their fair-minded treatment of dramatic conflict." (Paik, 2010:93)

"The destruction of nature is brought about not only from unchecked ambition and the desire for limitless power but also from the yearning to feed the hungry and to overcome the injustices of caste and class."  (Paik, 2010:95-6)

"It commences with the specter of devastating warfare between rival empires and concludes by engaging the insidious moral dilemmas that lie in wait in an age of triumphant technology that arrogates a redemptive meaning to its perpetuity." (Paik, 2010:96)

"Nausicaä displays many of the qualities that typify Miyazaki's heroines - She is courageous, resources, gentle conscientious, and intellectually curious." (Paik, 2010:97)

"This is not to say that Miyazaki nostalgically privileges uncomplicated, “flat” characters distinguished by their virtue over alluringly complex evil ones but rather that his ethical vision unfolds from the recognition of the many-sidedness of the human character as it appears from the perspective of the saint." (Paik, 2010:102-3)

Paik, Peter Y. (2010) From Utopia to Apocalypse : Science Fiction and the Politics of Catastrophe.
Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2010

"Nausicaä introduces some potentially religious imagery during its opening as well— a figure in blue who appears in an ancient tapestry. As the viewer learns later, this figure is a messiah, expected to save his people from destruction. The male messiah figure is implicitly equated with Nausicaä, who appears immediately after, clad in blue and riding the clouds in her little glider. The opening’s overall message, therefore, seems to combine both fear and hope." (202-3)

"As with Revelation, the film balances images of horrifying danger (the Ohmu, the God Warriors, poisoned air) with serene visions of beauty and harmony (Nausicaä’s pastoral Valley of the Winds, the tapestry’s depiction of the field of gold, the constant motif of flight)." (Napier, 2005:204)

"at the end of the film, the resurrection of Nausicaä and the taming of the Ohmu suggest a coming era of peace." (Napier, 2005:204)

"While quite feminine and clearly nurturing, Nausicaä displays virtually no overt sexuality. In fact, the critic Kamata Toji has suggested that, given her association with the male figure in the tapestry, Nausicaä is an essentially androgynous figure, perhaps even equivalent to a Bodhisattva, a disciple of Buddha who combines compassion with active salvatory works." (Napier, 2005:204)

"Nausicaä’s combination of androgynous and activist elements seems also very contemporary, however, making her a particularly appealing modern heroine. " (Napier, 2005:204)

"Nausicaä’ s subtext is also much less punitive than the traditional Christian version of apocalypse." (Napier, 2005:204)

"the film’s final message is not a simplistic advocation of punishment and reward. Instead the final scene seems to imply that, with kindness and intelligence, all varieties of humans (and even insects) can learn to live together. The film’s ultimate vision is of a reaffirmed collectivity that extends beyond humans to embrace nature in general."(Napier, 2005:204)

"a shared sense of hope and redemption." (Napier, 2005:204)

Napier, Susan J. (2005) Anime from Akira to Princess Mononoke : Experiencing Contemporary Japanese Animation. Gordonsville: Palgrave Macmillan.

“Although his primary job is to produce entertaining stories, he believes that they have important things to say.”

"Miyazaki’s anime are famous for their original character designs, beautiful colouration, attractive music, and skillful sound effects. These and his other remarkable achievements as a director have secured his reputation as a great master of anime” (239)

Miyazaki’s animation can have a deep significance for contemporary Japanese, touching on spiritual issues of identity and the quest for a meaningful life.” (237)

the release of sarin gas in several Tokyo subway lines by members of the religious group Aum Shinrikyo on the morning of March 20, 1995.” (200)

Aum was preoccupied with the development of supernatural powers through the use of yogic practices and meditation.” (201)

The tale is rich not only with the beautiful visuals of the animation but also in dealing with issues such as environmental ethics, war, and human dignity.” (54)

 “it seems more important to think about how we can live together. With the twentieth century coming to an end, and various problems piling up before us, don’t you think there is no use on dwelling on such things?” (248)

MacWilliams, Mark W. (2008) Japanese Visual Culture. New York: M.E. Sharpe Inc.

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